Antique Lighting Glossary
Cameo effect of two different types of glass creating a very fine detailed design.
A short movement in the Victorian period often characterized by sun flowers and jeweled details.
Fourteen to twenty inch inverted domes hung from chains or rods. The bowl is made from turned alabaster stone.
In the Victorian period certain design details of chandeliers eluded to mythological or literary events.
The appearance and reappearance of the stylized crown in architectural details.
Is often found in fixtures of the Arts and Crafts period and would be textured or crackled glass.
The Victorian arms of chandeliers and sconces often had decorative arm backs attached to them that can be figural animals and foliate details.
Fixtures of earlier periods were often offered with different oxidized finishes like antique brass.
Argand is a form of oil burner that existed in lamps and fixtures in the late 18th and early 19th century.
Is a design style characterized by geometric and stylized foliate detail. An example would be the streamline that you see on 1930’s automobiles.
A furniture and accessory design style categorized by organic and floral stylized details.
This period in the US was around 1920 and characterized by hammered metals in lighting and the mission style of lighting fixtures.
Types of buildings similar to the Gaudi style in Barcelona Spain.
Is a type of furniture leg design on certain English Tables that have a spiral twist.
Is a type of colonial lantern characterized by a bell jar with a suspended lid.
Edging on glass similar to raise panels in wood.
This would be referring to glass created in a oven by a glass blower.
Originally, bobeches were used to catch dripping wax from a candlestick, but today they can be used on chandeliers to accent the candelabra pieces. Many bobeches are also designed with pin holes that can be used to suspend other decorative items such as prisms and other various crystals. Bobeches are elegant pieces that will add class to any chandelier.
Scene in the Arts and Crafts movement that looks like pages being turned.
A geographical location in one of Boston¹s neighborhoods with many English style townhouses.
Was a company that manufactured fixtures in the late 1800¹s.
Casted detail of stylized leaves recurring on brass fixtures.
Is a catch all word for brick townhouses.
Type of single family dwelling in the early 1900¹s in the US.
Constructed of glass that through acid cutback creates a cameo design.
Electric socket design with metal and cardboard slips reminiscent of early waxed candles.
Is the electric box cover on the top of the chandelier.
Is a very thin glass consisting of clear glass and another color glass.
Slag glass is an art glass found in the late 1800¹s – early 1900¹s with striated textural markings.
Is an iridescent glass of different colors sold in the 1920¹s and 1930¹s.
Is molten brass poured into a mold to achieve very fine details.
Socket cover that holds the shade.
Is molten bronze poured into a mold to achieve very fine details.
Is molten glass poured into a mold to achieve very fine details.
Molten iron poured into a mold to achieve very fine details.
Two dimensional detail ; example sconce backs.
Decorative detail on a brass cast fixture arm.
Metal leaves with a gold wash.
Type of foliate detail with the use of leaves.
Type of details that you would see in Egyptian or Greek and Roman architecture.
Detailing characterized by lamps , swags, and bows in relief.
Referring to the period of time prior to the American Revolution.
The revival of forms characteristic of pre-1776 architecture.
Cut glass formed on a machine with a copper wheel.
Was a company established in Philadelphia in the 1850¹s.
Gas shades that flair out in a cut glass design on the top.
Is glass with detail cut into it on a machine using a copper wheel cut glass body.
Is glass with detail cut into it on a machine using a copper wheel.
David Gueron, of Turkish origin and a former fighter of the French Foreign Legion, was the founder of the ” Cristalleries De Compiegne”. This glass works mainly produced household glass in the early ’20. David Gueron soon discovered that he wanted more with his capacities in the glass industry. In 1926 he founded a new factory, which he called “Verrerie D’Art Degue” and put his full attention on the designing and production of Art Deco luxury art-glass. His factory was located on the “Boulevard Malesherbes” and his showroom was on the “41 rue de Paris”. Gueron mainly produced vases, lamps and chandeliers. His glass got well known because of it’s full and deep colors, which he achieved with a special process (especially red, orange, yellow and green). Gueron was also guilty of copying designs of other successful French glass artists like Daum, Galle, Muller Freres and Schneider. One can see imitation as the highest form of flattery, but Schneider thought else wise and sued Degue, who not only imitated, but also managed to take on several glass workers of Schneider as well. Schneider eventually won the lawsuit, but the lengthily law process (1926-1932), cost both firms a lot of money and they both almost had to close their factories. When the Second World War started David Gueron shut his glass works. He fled France and was lat seen in Paris in 1949. His factory in Compiegne still stands and is nowadays owned by a company selling tiles and door frames. The old furnace downstairs still has glass melted to its walls.
Dental detailing is decorative molding in blocks like stylized teeth. Fan motif is the graduated fluting e.g. bottom of a bowl.
Furniture and fixture style characterized by flat two dimensional brass castings. Simpler style in reaction to Victorian ornamentation.
Type of Architectural style with basic wood construction. e.g. shingle style Victorian
Is three dimensional relief repeated in bands .
Referring to the center part of a chandelier where the arms are attached and having a decorative relief design .
Multiple arm chandelier characterized by black and brass metal construction often with cornucopia arms . e.g. as in 6 arm chandelier .
Architectural style characterized by stucco facade with molded wood banding.
Cut glass in prismatic fashion similar to the way a diamond or other crystal is cut.
A type of iridescent art glass designed by Louis Comfort Tiffany. It was patented in 1894 and first produced in 1896. It differs from most iridescent glasses because the color is ingrained in the glass itself, as well as having distinctive coloring.
Representing a person or an animal.
The technology of poured molten bronze molded into the form of a person or animal.
Decorative finish detail on the top of a lamp or the very bottom of a chandelier.
Form of Art Glass encased with clear glass and another color glass .
French finial style representing a stylized flower .
Closely attached to the ceiling as in 12″ drop .
Simple form of circa 1890 Victorian Homes characterized by cedar shingle siding .
A frieze is a pattern which repeats in one direction. Friezes are often seen as ornaments in architecture.
Victorian ornamentation often found in chandeliers and furniture from 1890 – 1910 .
Flowered streamers architecturally decorating lighting fixtures, urns and furniture.
Period following the use of fluids to power chandeliers, gas was manufactured from coal to power chandeliers. This was an improvement from a safety point of view because fluids would tend to flow and drip to cause fire hazards. A typical gas chandelier ( e.g. 3 arm gas chandelier ) would have 3 arms with bowl shades on the end of the arms housing a gas flame that would light the room . The wattage output from gas chandeliers was fairly low.
During the late 1800¹s, around the beginning of the use of electric incandescent lighting, the Gas and Electric Chandelier is also called transitional combination and G & E form . This chandelier style was derived by the use of incandescent lighting added to the earlier gas chandelier form. Typically for example on a 6 arm gas and electric chandelier you will see the 3 gas arms facing up and the 3 incandescent lighting arms facing down . This is commonly called the combination form.
Pair shaped single light gas ceiling fixtures commonly found in the hall , foyer of a Victorian Home.
Asymmetrical shaped single light gas ceiling fixture commonly found in halls and small areas.
The use of very thin gold foil applied to surfaces for decorative purposes.
The result of aging on the metal finish of a decorative chandelier.
The common use of quatrefoils and trefoils and other details found in medieval times which were revived for chandeliers and furniture in the Victorian period.
The use of small crystal pieces ranging in size from larger to small strung on a piece of wire or string.
” Great Room“
400 square feet or larger .
The use of repeated geometric detailing as banding in a cornice or relief on a chandelier .
Form of architectural style characterized by porch columns , very high ceilings, and large windows. Commonly seen in the American 1840¹s.
Glass globes with relief detailing of repeated geometric banding .
Textured result of repeated peening with a hammer as in the Arts in Crafts Style.
The use of textured glass to be similar in representation to hammered metal.
The use of cast glass in a large bowl supported by chains or rods.
The use of prismatic glass in a globe form for the purpose of amplifying light.
The use of hydrofluoric acid or sand blasting to create a matte finish on clear glass.
Decorative two piece castings in a gas arm that control the flow of fuel.
Decorative detail formed by concave contours on metal surfaces
Bowl shaped chandelier supported by chains or rods.
Came glasswork is the process of joining cut pieces of art glass through the use of came strips or foil into picturesque designs in a framework of soldered metal. Came is made of different metals, such as lead, zinc, brass and copper.
The use of foil and soldier in creating a mosaic of translucent glass.
The manufacturing of the Longwy pottery started in 1798 with the take over of an old Carmelite monastery, where, during the Empire of the little emperor, a service for : “Les Maisons de la Légion d’Honneur” got ordered and delivered. After the siege of 1815, J. A. Nothomb, together with his partner Christine Boch, perfectionized the clay-past. Their grandchildren, Hyppolite and Henri-Ferdinand d’Huart reacted brilliant on the overwhelming attention for the ceramics from the Middle East. They added the Cloisonné technique to their objects d’art and that was a shot in the rose.
Architectural lamps designed to sit on a mantle while illuminating a room .
The use of the mineral mica bonded with shellac to create translucent sheets .
Type of Arts and Crafts fixture composed of metal and translucent mica sheets.
Type of translucent white glass used for chandelier shades.
Glass heated to a high temperature and then formed in different ways.
A mullti point 3-dimensional lighting fixture representing a star.
Furniture style characterized by details found in early Greek and Roman civilization.
Architectural lamp often of the Gas fixture period that sits on a Newel Post at the bottom of a set of stairs.
The use of nickel electro plated on another metal often for moisture resistance.
Common in the Gas and Electric period the center body details are pierced in a foliate design .
The use of hand painting in decorating Victorian Chandelier globes.
Coloration of metal finish due to aging.
Bowl chandelier composed of translucent glass showing a somewhat rainbow effect.
Type of decoration created by cutting into metal surfaces.
Typical multicolored painted finishing done in the Art Deco period.
Technology used to embossed glass by pressing the glass while heated against different patterns.
Four petal design representing a gothic stylized cross.
Quezal’s wares are known for the use of bold iridescent colors, particularly blue, gold, purple, white and green. These can be compared to Tiffany’s Favrile or Steuben’s Aurene glass.
Type of Victorian chandelier constructed with the use of Renaissance details like cartouches, and other massive details.
Net like pattern usually that you can see through.
Type of Victorian Chandelier constructed with the use of Rococo period details such as foliate swirls and gold leaf.
Cut to clear glass which is ruby on the outside and clear glass on the inside forming a design .
One of the many milk glass design globes found on fixtures in commercial and other non- residential settings around the turn-of-the-century.
Type of architectural detail that spirals from a center point that it continues to encircle.
Type of architectural detail representing the movement of a snake.
Type of lighting fixture constructed with the representation of undulating movement.
Type of embossed metal style often seen in silver plated wear of the 19th century.
As or representing a sea shell.
Similar to the slip shade in Art Deco chandelier with the use of a flat panel.
Slumping is a kilnforming process that uses heat and gravity to transform sheet glass into the shape of a mold. One can to create an almost endless variety of forms when slumping glass.
A type of hanging Bell shape shade for the use of dispersing smoke caused by a flame and usually found on hall lanterns and gasoliers.
Metal relief achieved by squeezing brass on metal between two forms.
Similar to transferred etched except the stencil design is created by applied painting.
Technology used in calcite shades where the color of one glass is shown through the different color of the second piece of glass when they are cased together and then acid etched.
Type of oil shade found on 19th century fixtures and lamps similar in shape to the tam-o¹-shanter hat.
Type of acid etched design representing flowering thistle plants.
Technology used with glass and hydrofluoric acid to etch shades and create an often floral design.
Referring to the time period going from the 19th century to the 20th century.
Type of glass gas chandelier shades with 2 5/8² diameter base often acid etched, frosted and wheel cut , found on American Gas Chandeliers in the 1850¹s and 1860¹s.
Type of glass chandelier crafted by the glass artisans associated with the glass companies of Venice, Italy.
Single light ceiling fixture e.g. Gas Harp, Gas J , Gas Lantern
Roughly the period of the rein of Queen Victoria which started in the early 19th century and ended in the 20th century.
Type of gas burner developed by the Welsbach fixture Company in the late 19th Century.
Type of Art glass characterized by textured striations often used in leaded glass construction.
Iron construction that is created by the use of heating iron and pounding it into a shape with a hammer.
Type of holophane shade with a prismatic pattern of parallel lines similar to a fabric zipper.